ISSUE 2/2015

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Lampic, M.; Koch, F.; Walz, M. A novel scientific approach to vermicular (compacted graphite) cast iron as per DIN EN 16079. Part 3: Energy and destruction

All forms of energy are based on moving particles presenting to ourselves as ellipses with electrons circulating around the focused atomic nucleus (Bohr-Sommerfeld) or planets surrounding the focused sun (Johannes Kepler) approaching zero energy value in the infinity, but never reaching it. This process obeys to the entropy law ending in the explosion of entropy with a repeating Big Bang (Fanz Neumann) in extending the infinity to eternity. All these leads to the definition of energy to be the property of moving particles being an attractive task to some deeper reflections and even fantasy. To destroy a component and/or material energy is required. Either as a sudden impact or alternating load, both normally combined with the effect of temperature. There are two basically different approaches to the matter: the lifetime concept and the fracture mechanics. The first one is based on the electron theory of metals and bond condition investigating the effect of external mechanical load on structural and sub-structural features of the material rather than defects. The second one investigates the safety of components implying the presence of cracks, or similar features, even such as stress concentrations on the crack propagation. The third mechanism of “destruction” characterizes the machining operations, where the tool (“cultrip”) and the casting (“victim”) mutually determine their “life”. In the given phase the results may be very helpful to understand the specific effects of the compacted (vermicular) graphite, which were rather scarcely treated at the fracture-mechanical observation.

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